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2022年的全球媒体:这是关于谁的权利

Every day, on average, we devour seven hours of content from Netflix and other companies.

In 2022, there will be three critical battles for the rights to that media.

石油寡头J保罗·盖蒂(J Paul Getty)于1976年去世,因为他的生活值得拍摄里德利·斯科特(Ridley Scott)电影。他赚了一笔巨大的财富,在马里布(Malibu)填补了一家艺术博物馆,甚至在他的耳朵被切断的同时,他的绑架孙子就与黑手党进行了80%的折扣。矿权”。

五年后,他近乎是错误的。公共汽车iness world is transformed. Fossil fuels are out of fashion. The minerals-heavy FTSE 100 has delivered just 10% in 21st century growth whilst the S&P 500 has doubled - powered by the tech and media-rich US economy, which has lifted the NASDAQ far further.

The rights that really count aren't in the ground any more. They're in the air.

Who controls the content that we stream is a defining commercial battleground for the 2020s. It's underpinning the tension between cinema release (没有时间死) and streaming (黑寡妇). It's driving the dialectic between major tech companies like Meta and Block around which vision of Web 3.0/the Metaverse should be the default operating system for our future 24/7 virtual communication.

弄清楚谁应该捕获我们使用的内容的价值,从未如此困难。挑战是权利所有权,它在2022年将全球媒体的三个杰出问题联系起来。

首先 - 谁将拥有使用AI生产的内容?

第二 - 艺术家或平台是否会赢得音乐流权利的生存斗争?

And third - will the替代模型重塑并重新民主新闻业?让我们依次将它们带走。

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Meet the algorithmic creator

It was a simpler time in the 1960s when Paul McCartney wrote the Beatles songYesterday。He alone had the idea, in a dream. "I went round to people in the music business and asked them whether they had ever heard it before....It became like handing something into the police. I thought: if no one claimed it after a few weeks, then I could have it". [i]

Today, creation and rights ownership are a much more complex affair.

机器学习正在娱乐业中使用。The Lost Tapes of the 27 Clubused AI to write and perform new songs for artists who died at 27: Hendrix, Cobain, Wine-house, Morrison. An AI 'finished'Beethoven's 10th Symphonylast year. An AI (Cinelytic) reads film scripts and tells you which to invest in, based on character profiles and key beats. A machine learning tool split the audio tracks of the Beatles' mixed-downGet Back录音,以便彼得·杰克逊(Peter Jackson)可以在他的纪录片中重新混音。

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At Oxford, we used an AI tool, the Megatron Transformer, todebate是否本身是道德的。GPT-3被牛津学者Floridi和Chiriatti使用,完成了简·奥斯丁小说的开篇桑迪顿,即使像所有AI一样,它“对请求的语义和上下文没有理解,而只有将单词关联的句法(统计)能力”。[ii]

广告和电影中的角色设计导致创建栩栩如生的元人(正如您在此元人类创建者视频中看到的那样), made realistic with algorithms trained on vast datasets. That's using theUnreal Engine, which came from Epic Games, the creators ofFortnite。其他类似的工具可以使用数以百万计的面孔,阅读全文ped off the internet, exploiting our own willing uploads to social media.

And if those inputs include our likeness so, at some level, does the resulting output. This re-cycling of literature, audio and even our own images begs the question; who owns the content created?

是原始资料的所有者(通常是公众)还是算法的创建者(程序员)。它是算法的用户(内容创建者,例如,用一些化妆品而不是昂贵的演员制作广告)?还是它是为了制作客户的?没人知道。

判决:

Sci-fi this is not. Expect debates around rights in AI-assisted production. It is already live in the advertising industry. As Floridi and Chiriatti put it, from a rights per-spective: “not being able to distinguish between a human and an artificial source can generate some confusion”.

The unbearable lightness of streaming

音乐权利目录就像超级游艇一样被抢购 - 一些同一买家。

华纳音乐以2.5亿美元(1.84亿英镑)的价格购买了David Bowie的26张录音室专辑。布鲁斯·斯普林斯汀(Bruce Springsteen)的目录以5.5亿美元(4.05亿英镑)的价格出现在索尼。英国上市的车辆Hipgonsis歌曲基金仅购买目录,市值为14.9亿英镑(203亿美元)。像KKR这样的主要私募股权公司已经参与了游戏,这与周期性经济指数缺乏相关性所吸引。毕竟,人们仍然在经济衰退中听音乐(想想星期六晚狂欢coming out in the New York recession of 1978, as the upcoming 2023 Bee Gees biopic will no doubt explore).

But if financial rivals are carving up the legacy catalogues, the real fight is elsewhere - song-writers versus the platforms and record companies. Artists below the elite nine-figure tier view the rents they get from Spotify and other streamers as dramatic undervaluation - and hit back. Last year a UK Parliamentary committee roasted record company executives for using pre-internet deals to define the proportions of music stream revenues they gave artists. MPs called for a "complete reset of music streaming to fairly reward performers and creators".[iii]

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判决:

期望这场辩论会加剧,因为主要的彩带音乐,Apple Music和Spotify抵制呼吁增加了溪流的付款,并且唱片公司抵制了自己与彩流人(以及在某些情况下)股票所有权的透明度。这将是一个继续大皇家队并需要监管机构和政府的一致干预。

咆哮的二十多岁的新闻业?

Salman Rushdie is releasing his next novel this year the way Charles Dickens launchedPickwick论文in 1836-37 - in instalments, and for cash.

He's doing it on替代, a blog site that offers paid subscriptions, giving writers the chance to monetise their output whilst disintermediating the newspaper and publishing groups which have consolidated power globally, often to claims, whether justified or not, of lack of balance. All of that is in an environment of febrile concern around disinformation, and a craving for new sources of objective news.

The top 10 writers on替代每年总共赚了2000万美元(1,470万英镑)。磨东西的器具在曼彻斯特,成员每月最高每月支付7英镑($ 9.50)的质量撰写当地问题。信息and冰球在美国蓬勃发展。

Such is the value of a subscriber base and quality journalism, that纽约时报刚刚抢购了一家体育报纸初创企业,必威体育是哪里的公司The Athletic,这从未赚钱,价格为5亿美元(3.68亿英镑) - 数十年来Staid报纸业务缺席的技术风格的投资指标。必威体育是哪里的公司

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判决:

After a generational decline with the arrival of the internet and migration of newspaper classified ads to search, journalism is looking up.纽约时报and金融时报已验证的订阅作品并消失了全球。兴奋是有才华的作家的基层初创企业。必威体育是哪里的公司2020年代的新闻可能像1920年代一样令人兴奋和多样化。像许多媒体上的许多人一样,他们直接货币化了自己内容的权利。


亚历克斯·康诺克(Alex Connock)博士在Business School including the MBA Business of Arts Culture and Entertainment module, and is co-Director of the postgraduate商业人工智能文凭

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